The first permanent picture
Joseph Nicephore Niepce (1765-1833), a French
inventor, was experimenting with camera obscura and
silver chloride.
In 1826, he turned to bitumen of Judea, a kind of asphalt that
hardened when exposed to light.
Niepce dissolved the bitumen in lavender oil and coated a
sheet of pewter with the mixture.
He placed the sheet in the camera and exposed it for eight
hours aimed through an open window at his courtyard.
The light forming the image on the plate hardened the
bitumen in bright areas and left it soft and soluble in the dark